Breast cancer occurs in one in eight women. Thanks to modern advances in medicine and public awareness projects, treatment can be initiated at an early stage of the disease. In cases where breast removal is necessary, many women experience a feeling of inferiority. Restoration (reconstruction) of the breast presupposes a surgery making a new breast instead of the removed one.
After diagnosis, even before breast removal, breast reconstruction should be included in the treatment. There are two types of breast reconstruction: immediate reconstruction and delayed reconstruction.
During breast removal surgery at an early stage of cancer, a team of specialists in plastic surgery re-forms the mammary gland. The advantage of this operation is that the patient avoids the need for re-operation and, most importantly, as a result of simultaneous recovery of the breast experiences less psychological trauma and a sense of loss. Thus, in the course of one operation, the removal of cancer tissue and the formation of a new breast are carried out.
Delayed breast reconstruction is a common solution to a surgical oncologist and a specialist in the field of plastic surgery, adopted in consequence necessary in the postoperative period application of such additional procedures. As a result, breast reconstruction surgery is postponed until the end of the treatments. To form a new breast where the removed one was, it is necessary to monitor the area with cancer or wait for the completion of additional treatment.
Who May Need a Breast Reconstruction Surgery
Breast reconstruction surgery can be carried out on all who have been diagnosed with breast cancer or mastectomy and during the examination did not find any contraindications.
Patients who smoke cigarettes or suffer from systemic diseases, for instance, diabetes and heart disease are at greater risk. In operations using the patient’s own tissue, rare cases of circulatory disorders in the transplanted tissues and complete or partial death of the tissue were recorded. It is for this reason that when planning an operation it is necessary to have spare options.
Breast Reconstruction Surgery Process
Breast removal and recovery are procedures of different areas of specialization. Breast reconstruction is performed by a specialist in the field of aesthetic and plastic surgery.
Planning of the operation depends on the general condition of the patient, the consequences of radiotherapy and the psychological state of the patient. It is necessary to choose the type of operation: either reconstruction by implantation or reconstruction of the breast with the patient’s tissues.
It is necessary to take into account the following: the presence or absence of damage to the vessels of the removed breast as a result of radiotherapy, the presence of heart disease, diabetes, etc., as well as the use of cigarettes. During operations of this type, it is possible to use different parts of the body surface, such as: back, abdominal area, thigh, inner part of the leg.
For the formation of the breast, the skin or adipose tissue of abdominal area can be used for women who gave birth, who have a fat layer or a sagging stomach.
With immediate reconstruction, the breast skin is preserved, so you can insert the prosthesis under the muscle tissue. In case of delayed reconstruction due to loss of skin elasticity, it is necessary to perform the procedure of stretching the skin and then implant the breast prosthesis.
first step of the reconstruction is to create a removed breast in the front wall of the breast. The second step is the formation of the breast nipple on the newly created breast to resemble it with the other breast. The next step is the planned reduction of the pigmented area of the breast.